Adjectives often confused
465. Many and Much
Don’t say: My brother hasn’t much books.
√ Say: My brother hasn’t many books.
Don’t say: Is there many dust in the room?
√ Say: Is there much dust in the room?
Use many with plural nouns many books or many boys
Use much with uncountable nouns much water or much bread
Note: In affirmative sentences many and much are generally replaced by a lot (of), a great deal (of), plenty (of), a good deal (of), a good many (of), a great number (of), a large quantity (of), etc.
466. Few and A Few
Don’t say: Although the question was easy, a few boys were able to answer it.
√ Say: Although the question was easy, few boys were able to answer it.
(b) A few
Don’t say: Although the question was difficult, few boys were able to answer it.
√ Say: Although the question was difficult, a few boys were able to answer it.
Few means not many and emphasizes the smallness of the number. It’s distinguished from a few, which means at least some.
467. Little and A little
Don’t say: He took a little exercise and wasn’t very fit.
√ Say: He took little exercise and wasn’t very fit.
(b) A little
Don’t say: She took little exercise and felt much better.
✓ Say: She took a little exercise and felt much better.
Little means not much and emphasizes the smallness of the amount. It’s distinguished from a little which means at least some.
468. Each and Every
Don’t say: She gave an apple to every of the children.
√ Say: She gave an apple to each of the children.
Don’t say: Each child had an apple.
√ Say: Every child had an apple.
Use each for one of two or more things taken one by one. Never use every for two, but always for more than two things, taker as a group. Each is more individual and specific, but every is the more emphatic word.
Note: Each and every are always singular –> Each (or every) one of the twenty boys has a book.
469. His and Her
Don’t say: John visits her aunt every Sunday.
√ Say: John visits his aunt every Sunday.
Don’t say: Ann visits his uncle every Sunday.
√ Say: Ann visits her uncle every Sunday.
In English, possessive adjectives (and pronouns) agree with the person who possesses, and not with the person or thing possessed. When the possessor is masculine, use his and when the possessor is feminine, use her
470. Older (oldest) and Elder (eldest)
(a) Older, Oldest
Don’t say: This girl is eider than that one.
This girl is the eldest of all.
√ Say: This girl is older than that one.
This girl is the oldest of all.
(b) Elder, Eldest
Don’t say: My older brother is called John.
My oldest brother is not here.
√ Say: My elder brother is called John.
My eldest brother is not here.
Older and oldest are applied to both people and things, while elder and eldest are applied to people only, and most frequently to related people.
Note: Elder can’t be followed by than –> Jane is older (not elder) than her sister.
471. Interesting and Interested
Don’t say: I’ve read an interested story.
√ Say: I’ve read an interesting story.
Don’t say: Are you interesting in your work?
√ Say: Are you interested in your work?
Interesting infers to the thing which arouses interest, while interested refers to the person who takes an interest in the thing.
472. Wounded and Injured or Hurt
Don’t say: Jack was wounded in a car accident.
√ Say: Jack was injured in a car accident.
People are injured or hurt as a result of an accident or a fight, but people are wounded in wars and battles.
473. Farther and Further
Don’t say: Turn the page for farther instructions.
√ Say: Turn the page for further instructions.
Note: Use further to mean both greater distance and more of something
We only use farther for distances –> I live a bit farther away than you. Don’t use it to mean more. We use further for both meanings in modern English
474. A for An
Don’t say: A animal, a orange, a hour.
√ Say: An animal, an orange, an hour.
Use an instead of a before a vowel or a silent h (as in hour, heir, honest). Before a long u or a syllable having the sound of you, we use a (not an) a union, a European (but an uncle).
475. One or A (n)
Don’t say: Adam found one ring in the street.
√ Say: Adam found a ring in the street.
Don’t use the numeral one instead of the indefinite article a or an. Use one only where the number is emphatic –> He gave me one book instead 0f two.
476. Some for Any
Don’t say: Louis has got any milk.
√ Say: Louis has got some milk.
Don’t say: There aren’t some books on the shelf.
√ Say: There aren’t any books on the shelf.
We usually use some for affirmative phrases –> She’s got some chicken.
Use any in negative and interrogative phrases –> Ian hasn’t bought any food today. Have you bought any food?
We sometimes use some in questions –> Would you like some soup?
477. Less for Fewer
Don’t say: They have less books than I have.
√ Say: They have fewer books than I have.
Less denotes amount, quantity, value, or degree.
Fewer denotes number.
We may have less water, less food, less money, less education, but fewer books, fewer letters, fewer trends
Note: We say less than (five, six, etc.) pounds became the pounds are considered as a sum of money and not as a number of coins.
478. This for That
Don’t say: Look at this dog across the street!
√ Say: Look at that dog across the street!
This is used to indicate something physically dose to the speaker. In the case of abstract things we use this for things which are most immediately present –> This is a lovely song! I’ll help you do it this time.
When we talk about more than one thing we use this for the closer or more immediate and that for the further away or more remote in the time. If we’re only talking about one thing we usually use that –> What’s that noise? That’s a nice coat! Don’t do that!
479. Latter for Later
Don’t say: She got to school latter than I did.
✓ Say: She got to school later than I did.
Later refers to time. Latter refers to order and means the second of two things just mentioned –> Alexandra and Cairo are large cities. The latter has a population of over a million. The opposite of latter is former.
480. Last for Latter
Don’t say: Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens are both excellent writers, but I prefer the last.
✓ Say: Sir Walter Scott and Charles Dickens are both excellent writers, but I prefer the latter
The latter means the second of two people or thirds which have been mentioned. The last refers to a sense of more than two.
481. Last for Latest
Don’t say: What’s the last news from the Palace?
✓ Say: What’s the latest news from the Palace?
Latest is the last up to the present. Last is the fine one –> Z is the last letter of the alphabet.
482. Small, Big for Young, Old
Don’t say: I’m two years smaller than you.
She’s three years bigger than me.
✓ Say: I’m two years younger than you.
She’s three years older than me.
If reference is to age, say young or old. Small and big usually refer to see –> He is big (or small) for his age.
Note: Great refers to the importance of a person or thing –> Napoleon was a great man, Homer’s liad is a great book. Use great with words like distance, height, length, depth –> There is a great distance between the Earth and the moon. Informally, use great to mean something nice or good –> We watched a great concert last night.
483. High for Tall
Don’t say: My elder brother is six feet high.
✓ Say: My elder brother is six feet tall.
We generally use tall with people, and it’s the opposite of short. Use high when referring to trees, buildings or mountains, and it’s the opposite of low.
484. Beautiful for Handsome or Good-looking
Don’t say: He’s grown into a beautiful young man.
✓ Say: He’s grown into a handsome young man.
We usually say that a man is handsome or good-looking, and that a woman is beautiful, lovely, good looking or pretty
485. Sick or ill
Don’t say: He’s been sick for over a year.
✓ Say: He’s been ill for over a year.
To be ill means to be in bad health.
To be sick means to vomit.
We sometimes use sick idiomatically to mean feeling ill –> The smell made me sick.
Note: We can also use sick before certain nouns –> The sick room, a sick note, sick leave
We use the plural noun the sick to mean ill people –> Angela watched with the sick on the streets of Birmingham.
486. Clear for Clean
Don’t say You should keep your hands clear.
✓ Say: You should keep your hands clean.
Clean is the opposite of dirty.
Clear means transparent or unclouded: clear water, a clear sky.
487. Angry for Sorry
Don’t say: I was angry to hear of her death.
✓ Say: I was sorry to hear of her death.
Sorry is the opposite of glad.
Angry means annoyed or enraged –> He was angry when a boy hit him in the face.
488. Nervous for Angry
Don’t say: Our teacher is very nervous today.
✓ Say: Our teacher is very angry today.
Nervous means to be easily frightened or upset and can be a temporary or permanent condition.
Angry describes someone’s mood at a given moment.