242. The -s or -es of the third person singular omitted
Don’t say. He speak English very well.
√ Say: He speaks English very well.
Take great care not to leave out the -s or -es from the present tense, when the subject is he, she, it, or a noun in the singular.
243. Using don’t instead of doesn’t
Don’t say: He don’t care what he says.
√ Say: He doesn’t care what he says.
Use don’t (= do not) with I, we, you, they, and with plural nouns. Use doesn’t (= does not) with he, she, it and with singular nouns.
244. The -d or -ed of the past tense omitted
Don’t say: I receive a letter yesterday.
√ Say: I received a letter yesterday.
Take care not to leave out the -d or -ed from the past tense or regular verbs. When speaking, pronounce the ending of the past tense clearly.
Third person singular, simple present
1. With the pronouns he, she, it, or any singular noun, the verb in the present tense takes a special ending, -s, -es gift’s: he works, it catches, the sun rises, she worries.
2. When the first person of the verb ends in s, x, ch, s/i. or o, the third person singular takes -es:
I watch I finish I fix I go
he watches he finishes he fixes he goes
3. When the first person of the verb ends in -y with a consonant before it, form the third person singular by changing y into ies:
I carry I study I fly
he carries he studies he flies
Note: If there is a vowel before the -y, we only add s for the third person singular: he plays, he enjoys, he obeys.
4. A few verbs are irregular in the third person singular:
I am I have
he is he has
5. Modal verbs such as will, can, may, must, and ought do NOT change their form in the third person singular:
I will I can I may I must
he will he can he may he must
Remember: The third person singular of verbs in the present tense takes -s, -es or -ies.
245. The -s, -es or -ies of the plural form omitted
Don’t say: 1 paid six pound for the book.
√ Say: I paid six pounds for the book.
Take tare not to leave out the -s, -es or -ies of the plural number
Note: The following nouns have irregular plurals man, men; women, women; child, children; ox, oxen; foot, feet; tooth, teeth; goose, geese; mouse, mice.
246. The possessive ending omitted
Don’t say: A hen’s egg is different from a pigeon.
√ Say: A hen’s egg is different from a pigeon’s.
If the first noun in a comparison is in the possessive case, the second must also be in the possessive –> My mother’s nose is bagger than my father’s.
247. Omission of the article before a countable noun in the singular
Don’t say: I’ve no money to buy car.
√ Say: I’ve no money to buy a car.
As a rule, use either the or a or an before a countable noun in the singular.
248. Omission of a or an after the verb to be
Don’t say: I’m not teacher, I’m student.
√ Say: I’m not a teacher, I’m a student.
Use the indefinite article a or an to express a singular noun-complement of the verb to be –> There’s an animal in there. It’s a mouse.
249. Omission of a or an after the word half
Don’t say: He drank half glass of milk.
√ Say: He drank half a glass of milk.
Note: Half a glass (an hour, a day, a mile, etc.) is the shortened form of half of a glass (of an hour, of a day, of a mile, etc.)
250. Omission of a or one before hundred, etc.
Don’t say: Hundred years make a century.
√ Say: A hundred years make a century.
Or: One hundred years make a century.
Use the indefinite article a or the numeral one before hundred and thousand
Verb TO BE
Present Tense I am/’m, you are/’re, he (she, it) is/’s
We, you, they are/’re.
Past Tense I was, you were, he (she, it) was
We, you, they were
Future Tense I, you, he (she, it) will/’ll be
We, you, they will/’ll be
Present Perfect I, you, have/’ve been, he (she, it) has/’s been
We, you. they have/’ve been
Past Perfect I, you, he (she, it) had/’d been
We, you, they had/’d been
Future Perfect I, you, he (she, it) will/’ll have been
We, you, they will/’ll have been
Uses of the verb TO be as auxiliary
Use the verb to be:
1. With the Present Participle to form the Continuous Tenses
To be + Present Participle
Example: The sun was shining in the sky.
2. With the Past Participle to form the Passive Form
To be + Past Participle
Example: The letter was written by John.