Build Your IELTS Vocabulary Through Reading

Australian Aboriginals

Australia is an unique land. Its flora, its animals, and its aboriginal people differ significantly from those on any other part of the world’s surface.

Before the white man reached Australia, the whole continent was peopled with brown- skinned aboriginals of the same appearance, following the same way of life, and accepting a similar code of beliefs. No other race but the aboriginals bad established itself in Australia, nor, as far as we know, are there similar people in any other part of the world. And they have inhabited the continent for over 40, 000 years.

The life of the desert aboriginals is one of continuous movement from one waterhole to the next and they seldom remain in any one place for more than a few days. The women quickly exhaust the supplies of grass seeds, yam and fruits within walking distance of the water supply, and the hunting activities of the men quickly drive the game to other places. In the dry weather, which predominates in the desert country, the aboriginals sleep on the ground, with a small fire on either side, and a windbreak of boughs at their heads as protection. When the weather becomes stormy or wet, they will quickly build a light shelter of spinifex.

But on the northern coasts of Australia, where the aboriginals are assured of food for weeks or even months, they build more substantial shelters. There along the sea-coasts, or the shores of some lagoons, the aboriginals make their huts with sheets of bark, stripped from the eucalyptus trees, or a house of light branches roofed with soft paper-task from the trees of the swamps. Even there, in the dry season, the aboriginals often sleep out of doors. In the swamp country where mosquitoes are particularly troublesome, there is an interesting dwelling. The husband sleeps in the upper part, his wives at ground level. It is the duty of the women to keep a smoky lire going, so that their husband will not be disturbed by the annoying attacks of the vicious insects.

The northern fringes of the continent are especially rich in food. The seas supply people with marine creatures of countless kind—fish, and turtles. These the aboriginals capture by fishing, or spearing with a harpoon. Moreover, there is also a wide range of foods available to those aboriginals who live in the forest country, far from the sea and swamps. In this habitat many creatures are to be caught, fruit to be plucked from the trees, and tubers to be slug from the ground.

Two important aboriginal foods are the fruit of the cycad palm, and a large nutritious yam. The cycads provide an ample and reliable source of food from June until October, while the yam is available for an even longer period. The interesting thing is that both of these fruits are highly poisonous in their normal state, and can only be eaten after cutting them in slices and soaking them in running water for several days. The prepared fruit can also be stored in pits, where it remains edible for a considerable time.

For the native people who live on the sea-coast or the swamplands, the nesting season, too, is a time of abundance. The outlying islands and the rocky headlands are the nesting places of the marine birds, the gulls, fairy penguins and terns, and the swamps are the homes of swans, pelicans, geese, and wild ducks of many kinds. The multitudes of their eggs provide the native people with an abundant supply for easily gathered food. People cook the eggs in the hot sand of the camp-fire, and they prefer them when they are almost ready to hatch, believing, quite correctly, that they are much more satisfying in this state than when they are newly laid. The eggs of the emus are another source of fond, two of them, especially if they are near incubation, being sufficient for a meal.

In the aboriginal society, the older men possess an innate dignity that is not common in our own culture. And the tribal elders hold the highest social status. It is they alone who know the inner secrets of the tribe, who possess the knowledge of the most lethal chants to punish offenders, and who have the final say in all matters relating to the ceremonial life of the tribe.

These Australian aboriginals also have their own myths, according to their beliefs, in the beginning the earth was flat and featureless, just like a huge plain extending on all sides to the horizon. (And even today, they think that if they walk too far in any direction they will be in danger of falling into bottomless space.) Then came the “Dream Time, ” when certain great semi-human beings rose out of the featureless plain where they had slumbered for countless eggs, and began to wander over the countryside. And when the “Dream Time” mysteriously came 10 an end, everywhere the mythical heroes had carried out any great task, some natural feature such as a mountain range, a hill, or a river, arose to mark the place. So, this is why every aboriginal claims direct descent from one or another of these mythical beings of the “Dream Time”.

Words and Expressions

  1. aboriginal (n/adj): relating to the original people, animals, etc. of a place and to a period of time before Europeans arrived ⇒ “Australia is an unique land. Its flora, its animals, and its aboriginal people differ significantly from those on any other part of the world’s surface.”
  2. unique (adj): being the only one of its kind ⇒ “Australia is an unique land. Its flora, its animals, and its aboriginal people differ significantly from those on any other part of the world’s surface.”
  3. flora (n): the plants of a particular area, type of environment or period of time ⇒ “Australia is an unique land. Its flora, its animals, and its aboriginal people differ significantly from those on any other part of the world’s surface.”
  4. significantly (adv): in a way that is large or important enough to have an effect on something or to be noticed ⇒ “Australia is an unique land. Its flora, its animals, and its aboriginal people differ significantly from those on any other part of the world’s surface.”
  5. people (n): a lot of person ⇒ “Before the white man reached Australia, the whole continent was peopled with brown- skinned aboriginals of the same appearance, following the same way of life, and accepting a similar code of beliefs.”
  6. follow (v): go after someone or something ⇒ “Before the white man reached Australia, the whole continent was peopled with brown- skinned aboriginals of the same appearance, following the same way of life, and accepting a similar code of beliefs.”
  7. but (prep): used to introduce a word or phrase that contrasts with what was said before ⇒ “No other race but the aboriginals bad established itself in Australia, nor, as far as we know, are there similar people in any other part of the world. And they have inhabited the continent for over 40, 000 years.”
  8. establish (v): to start or create an organization, a system, etc. that is meant to last for a long time ⇒ “No other race but the aboriginals bad established itself in Australia, nor, as far as we know, are there similar people in any other part of the world. And they have inhabited the continent for over 40, 000 years.”
  9. as far as: a long distance away ⇒ “No other race but the aboriginals bad established itself in Australia, nor, as far as we know, are there similar people in any other part of the world. And they have inhabited the continent for over 40, 000 years.”
  10. inhabit (v): to live in a particular place ⇒ “And they have inhabited the continent for over 40, 000 years.”
  11. waterhole (n): a place in a hot country, where animals go to drink ⇒ “The life of the desert aboriginals is one of continuous movement from one waterhole to the next and they seldom remain in any one place for more than a few days.”
  12. exhaust (v): go through something ⇒ “The women quickly exhaust the supplies of grass seeds, yam and fruits within walking distance of the water supply, and the hunting activities of the men quickly drive the game to other places.”
  13. yam (n): the large root of a tropical plant that is cooked as a vegetable ⇒ “The women quickly exhaust the supplies of grass seeds, yam and fruits within walking distance of the water supply, and the hunting activities of the men quickly drive the game to other places.”
  14. within walking distance: walk in a distance ⇒ “The women quickly exhaust the supplies of grass seeds, yam and fruits within walking distance of the water supply, and the hunting activities of the men quickly drive the game to other places.”
  15. game (n): an activity or a sport with rules in which people or teams compete against each other ⇒ “The women quickly exhaust the supplies of grass seeds, yam and fruits within walking distance of the water supply, and the hunting activities of the men quickly drive the game to other places.”
  16. predominate (v): to be greater in amount or number than something or somebody else in a place, group,… ⇒ “In the dry weather, which predominates in the desert country, the aboriginals sleep on the ground, with a small fire on either side, and a windbreak of boughs at their heads as protection.”
  17. windbreak (n): a row of trees, a fence,… that provides protection from the wind ⇒ “In the dry weather, which predominates in the desert country, the aboriginals sleep on the ground, with a small fire on either side, and a windbreak of boughs at their heads as protection.”
  18. bough (n): a large branch of a tree ⇒ “In the dry weather, which predominates in the desert country, the aboriginals sleep on the ground, with a small fire on either side, and a windbreak of boughs at their heads as protection.
  19. stormy (adj): with strong winds and heavy rain or snow ⇒ “When the weather becomes stormy or wet, they will quickly build a light shelter of spinifex.”
  20. light (n): the energy from the sun, a lamp,… that makes it possible to see things ⇒ “When the weather becomes stormy or wet, they will quickly build a light shelter of spinifex.”
  21. shelter (n): the fact of having a place to live or stay, considered as a basic human need ⇒ “When the weather becomes stormy or wet, they will quickly build a light shelter of spinifex.”
  22. spinifex (n): a name of tree ⇒ “When the weather becomes stormy or wet, they will quickly build a light shelter of spinifex.”
  23. assure (v): to tell somebody that something is definitely true or is definitely going to happen, especially when they have doubts about it ⇒ “But on the northern coasts of Australia, where the aboriginals are assured of food for weeks or even months, they build more substantial shelters.”
  24. substantial (adj): large in amount, value or importance ⇒ “But on the northern coasts of Australia, where the aboriginals are assured of food for weeks or even months, they build more substantial shelters.”
  25. lagoon (n): a lake of salt water that is separated from the sea by a reef or an area of rock or sand ⇒ “There along the sea-coasts, or the shores of some lagoons, the aboriginals make their huts with sheets of bark, stripped from the eucalyptus trees, or a house of light branches roofed with soft paper-task from the trees of the swamps.”
  26. hut (n): a small, simply built house or shelter ⇒ “There along the sea-coasts, or the shores of some lagoons, the aboriginals make their huts with sheets of bark, stripped from the eucalyptus trees, or a house of light branches roofed with soft paper-task from the trees of the swamps.”
  27. bark (n): the outer covering of a tree ⇒ “There along the sea-coasts, or the shores of some lagoons, the aboriginals make their huts with sheets of bark, stripped from the eucalyptus trees, or a house of light branches roofed with soft paper-task from the trees of the swamps.”
  28. strip (v): to take off all or most of your clothes or another person’s clothes ⇒ “There along the sea-coasts, or the shores of some lagoons, the aboriginals make their huts with sheets of bark, stripped from the eucalyptus trees, or a house of light branches roofed with soft paper-task from the trees of the swamps.”
  29. eucalyptus (n): a tall straight tree with leaves that produce an oil with a strong smell, that is used in medicine ⇒ “There along the sea-coasts, or the shores of some lagoons, the aboriginals make their huts with sheets of bark, stripped from the eucalyptus trees, or a house of light branches roofed with soft paper-task from the trees of the swamps.”
  30. swamp (n): an area of ground that is very wet or covered with water and in which plants, trees,… are growing ⇒ “There along the sea-coasts, or the shores of some lagoons, the aboriginals make their huts with sheets of hark, stripped from the eucalyptus trees, or a house of light branches roofed with soft paper-task from the trees of the swamps.”
  31. mosquito (n): a flying insect that bites humans and animals and sucks their blood ⇒ “In the swamp country where mosquitoes are particularly troublesome, there is an interesting dwelling.”
  32. troublesome (adj): causing trouble, pain,… over a long period of time ⇒ “In the swamp country where mosquitoes are particularly troublesome, there is an interesting dwelling.”
  33. dwelling (n): a house, flat/apartment, etc. where a person lives ⇒ “In the swamp country where mosquitoes are particularly troublesome, there is an interesting dwelling.”
  34. smoky (adj): full of smoke ⇒ “It is the duty of the women to keep a smoky lire going, so that their husband will not be disturbed by the annoying attacks of the vicious insects.”
  35. disturb (v): to interrupt somebody when they are trying to work, sleep,… ⇒ “It is the duty of the women to keep a smoky lire going, so that their husband will not be disturbed by the annoying attacks of the vicious insects.”
  36. annoying (adj): making somebody feel slightly angry ⇒ “It is the duty of the women to keep a smoky lire going, so that their husband will not be disturbed by the annoying attacks of the vicious insects.”
  37. vicious (adj): violent and cruel ⇒ “It is the duty of the women to keep a smoky lire going, so that their husband will not be disturbed by the annoying attacks of the vicious insects.”
  38. fringe (n): the front part of somebody’s hair that is cut so that it hangs over their forehead ⇒ “The northern fringes of the continent are especially rich in food.”
  39. marine (adj): connected with the sea and the creatures and plants that live there ⇒ “The seas supply people with marine creatures of countless kind—fish, and turtles.”
  40. capture (v): to catch a person or an animal and keep them as a prisoner or in a confined space ⇒ “These the aboriginals capture by fishing, or spearing with a harpoon.”
  41. spear (n): a weapon with a long wooden handle and a sharp metal point used for fighting, hunting and fishing in the past ⇒ “These the aboriginals capture by fishing, or spearing with a harpoon.”
  42. harpoon (n): a weapon like a spear that you can throw or fire from a gun and is used for catching large fish, whales,… ⇒ “These the aboriginals capture by fishing, or spearing with a harpoon.”
  43. available (adj): something that you can get, buy or find ⇒ “Moreover, there is also a wide range of foods available to those aboriginals who live in the forest country, far from the sea and swamps.”
  44. habitat (n): the place where a particular type of animal or plant is normally found ⇒ “In this habitat many creatures are to be caught, fruit to be plucked from the trees, and tubers to be slug from the ground.”
  45. pluck (v): to pull out hairs with your fingers or with tweezers ⇒ “In this habitat many creatures are to be caught, fruit to be plucked from the trees, and tubers to be slug from the ground.”
  46. tuber (n): the short thick round part of an underground stem or root of some plants, such as potatoes, which stores food and from which new plants grow ⇒ “In this habitat many creatures are to be caught, fruit to be plucked from the trees, and tubers to be slug from the ground.”
  47. cycad (n): name of a tree ⇒ “Two important aboriginal foods are the fruit of the cycad palm, and a large nutritious yam.”
  48. palm (n): a straight tree with a mass of long leaves at the top, growing in tropical countries ⇒ “Two important aboriginal foods are the fruit of the cycad palm, and a large nutritious yam.”
  49. nutritious (adj): (of food) very good for you, containing many of the substances which help the body to grow ⇒ “Two important aboriginal foods are the fruit of the cycad palm, and a large nutritious yam.”
  50. ample (adj): enough or more than enough ⇒ “The cycads provide an ample and reliable source of food from June until October, while the yam is available for an even longer period.”
  51. reliable (adj): something that can be trusted to do something well and you can rely on ⇒ “The cycads provide an ample and reliable source of food from June until October, while the yam is available for an even longer period.”
  52. slice (n): a thin flat piece of food that has been cut off a larger piece ⇒ “The interesting thing is that both of these fruits are highly poisonous in their normal state, and can only be eaten after cutting them in slices and soaking them in running water for several days.”
  53. soak (v): to put something in liquid for a time so that it becomes completely wet; to become completely wet in this way ⇒ “The interesting thing is that both of these fruits are highly poisonous in their normal state, and can only be eaten after cutting them in slices and soaking them in running water for several days.”
  54. store (v): hold something in ⇒ “The prepared fruit can also be stored in pits, where it remains edible for a considerable time.”
  55. pit (n): a large deep hole in the ground ⇒ “The prepared fruit can also be stored in pits, where it remains edible for a considerable time.”
  56. edible (adj): fit or suitable to be eaten, not poisonous ⇒ “The prepared fruit can also be stored in pits, where it remains edible for a considerable time.”
  57. considerable (adj): great in amount, size, importance,… ⇒ “The prepared fruit can also be stored in pits, where it remains edible for a considerable time.”
  58. swampland (n): a large area of swamp ⇒ “For the native people who live on the sea-coast or the swamplands, the nesting season, too, is a time of abundance.”
  59. nest (v): a hollow place or structure that a bird makes or chooses for laying its eggs in and sheltering its young ⇒ “For the native people who live on the sea-coast or the swamplands, the nesting season, too, is a time of abundance.”
  60. abundance (n): a large quantity that is more than enough ⇒ “For the native people who live on the sea-coast or the swamplands, the nesting season, too, is a time of abundance.”
  61. outlying (adj): far away from the cities of a country or from the main part of a place ⇒ “The outlying islands and the rocky headlands are the nesting places of the marine birds, the gulls, fairy penguins and terns, and the swamps are the homes of swans, pelicans, geese, and wild ducks of many kinds.”
  62. headland (n): a narrow piece of high land that sticks out from the coast into the sea ⇒ “The outlying islands and the rocky headlands are the nesting places of the marine birds, the gulls, fairy penguins and terns, and the swamps are the homes of swans, pelicans, geese, and wild ducks of many kinds.”
  63. gull (n): a bird with long wings and usually white and grey or black feathers that lives near the sea ⇒ “The outlying islands and the rocky headlands are the nesting places of the marine birds, the gulls, fairy penguins and terns, and the swamps are the homes of swans, pelicans, geese, and wild ducks of many kinds.”
  64. fairy (adj): acceptable and appropriate in a particular situation ⇒ “The outlying islands and the rocky headlands are the nesting places of the marine birds, the gulls, fairy penguins and terns, and the swamps are the homes of swans, pelicans, geese, and wild ducks of many kinds.”
  65. penguin (n): a black and white bird that lives in the Antarctic. Penguins cannot fly but use their wings for swimming ⇒ “The outlying islands and the rocky headlands are the nesting places of the marine birds, the gulls, fairy penguins and terns, and the swamps are the homes of swans, pelicans, geese, and wild ducks of many kinds.”
  66. tern (n): a bird with long pointed wings and a tail with two points that lives near the sea ⇒ “The outlying islands and the rocky headlands are the nesting places of the marine birds, the gulls, fairy penguins and terns, and the swamps are the homes of swans, pelicans, geese, and wild ducks of many kinds.”
  67. swan (n): a large bird that is usually white and has a long thin neck ⇒ “The outlying islands and the rocky headlands are the nesting places of the marine birds, the gulls, fairy penguins and terns, and the swamps are the homes of swans, pelicans, geese, and wild ducks of many kinds.”
  68. pelican (n): a large bird that lives near water, with a bag of skin under its long beak for storing food ⇒ “The outlying islands and the rocky headlands are the nesting places of the marine birds, the gulls, fairy penguins and terns, and the swamps are the homes of swans, pelicans, geese, and wild ducks of many kinds.”
  69. geese (n): a bird like a large duck with a long neck ⇒ “The outlying islands and the rocky headlands are the nesting places of the marine birds, the gulls, fairy penguins and terns, and the swamps are the homes of swans, pelicans, geese, and wild ducks of many kinds.”
  70. multitude (n): an extremely large number of things or people ⇒ “The multitudes of their eggs provide the native people with an abundant supply for easily gathered food.”
  71. hatch (v): to come out of an egg ⇒ “People cook the eggs in the hot sand of the camp-fire, and they prefer them when they arc almost ready to hatch, believing, quite correctly, that they are much more satisfying in this state than when they are newly laid.”
  72. lay (v): to put somebody or something in a particular position, especially when it is done gently or carefully ⇒ “People cook the eggs in the hot sand of the camp-fire, and they prefer them when they arc almost ready to hatch, believing, quite correctly, that they are much more satisfying in this state than when they are newly laid.”
  73. emu (n): a large Australian bird that can run fast but cannot fly ⇒ “The eggs of the emus are another source of fond, two of them, especially if they are near incubation, being sufficient for a meal.”
  74. source (n): a place, person or thing that you get something from ⇒ “The eggs of the emus are another source of fond, two of them, especially if they are near incubation, being sufficient for a meal.”
  75. incubation (n): the time between somebody being infected with a disease and the appearance of the first symptoms (= signs) ⇒ “The eggs of the emus are another source of fond, two of them, especially if they are near incubation, being sufficient for a meal.”
  76. sufficient (adj): enough for a particular purpose, as much as you need ⇒ “The eggs of the emus are another source of fond, two of them, especially if they are near incubation, being sufficient for a meal.”
  77. innate (adj): (of a quality, feeling,…) that you have when you are born ⇒ “In the aboriginal society, the older men possess an innate dignity that is not common in our own culture.”
  78. dignity (n): a calm and serious manner that deserves respect ⇒ “In the aboriginal society, the older men possess an innate dignity that is not common in our own culture.”
  79. tribal (adj): connected with a tribe or tribes ⇒ “And the tribal elders hold the highest social status.”
  80. status (n): the legal position of a person, group or country ⇒ “And the tribal elders hold the highest social status.”
  81. tribe (n): a group of people of the same race, and with the same customs, language, religion, etc., living in a particular area and often led by a chief ⇒ “It is they alone who know the inner secrets of the tribe, who possess the knowledge of the most lethal chants to punish offenders, and who have the final say in all matters relating to the ceremonial life of the tribe.”
  82. lethal (adj): causing or able to cause death ⇒ “It is they alone who know the inner secrets of the tribe, who possess the knowledge of the most lethal chants to punish offenders, and who have the final say in all matters relating to the ceremonial life of the tribe.”
  83. chant (n): words or phrases that a group of people shout or sing again and again ⇒ “It is they alone who know the inner secrets of the tribe, who possess the knowledge of the most lethal chants to punish offenders, and who have the final say in all matters relating to the ceremonial life of the tribe.”
  84. punish (v): to make somebody suffer because they have broken the law or done something wrong ⇒ “It is they alone who know the inner secrets of the tribe, who possess the knowledge of the most lethal chants to punish offenders, and who have the final say in all matters relating to the ceremonial life of the tribe.”
  85. offender (n): a person who commits a crime ⇒ “It is they alone who know the inner secrets of the tribe, who possess the knowledge of the most lethal chants to punish offenders, and who have the final say in all matters relating to the ceremonial life of the tribe.”
  86. have the final say: have the last thing to say ⇒ “It is they alone who know the inner secrets of the tribe, who possess the knowledge of the most lethal chants to punish offenders, and who have the final say in all matters relating to the ceremonial life of the tribe.”
  87. ceremonial (adj):relating to or used in a ceremony ⇒ “It is they alone who know the inner secrets of the tribe, who possess the knowledge of the most lethal chants to punish offenders, and who have the final say in all matters relating to the ceremonial life of the tribe.”
  88. myth (n): a story from ancient times, especially one that was told to explain natural events or to describe the early history of a people; this type of story ⇒ “These Australian aboriginals also have their own myths, according to their beliefs, in the beginning the earth was flat and featureless, just like a huge plain extending on all sides to the horizon.”
  89. featureless (adj): without any qualities or noticeable characteristics ⇒ “These Australian aboriginals also have their own myths, according to their beliefs, in the beginning the earth was flat and featureless, just like a huge plain extending on all sides to the horizon.”
  90. horizon (n): the furthest that you can see, where the sky seems to meet the land or the sea ⇒ “These Australian aboriginals also have their own myths, according to their beliefs, in the beginning the earth was flat and featureless, just like a huge plain extending on all sides to the horizon.”
  91. slumber (v): feel asleep ⇒ “Then came the “Dream Time, ” when certain great semi-human beings rose out of the featureless plain where they had slumbered for countless eggs, and began to wander over the countryside.”
  92. mysterious (adj): difficult to understand or explain, strange ⇒ “And when the “Dream Time” mysteriously came 10 an end, everywhere the mythical heroes had carried out any great task, some natural feature such as a mountain range, a hill, or a river, arose to mark the place. So, this is why every aboriginal claims direct descent from one or another of these mythical beings of the “Dream Time”
  93. mythical (adj): existing only in ancient myths ⇒ “And when the “Dream Time” mysteriously came 10 an end, everywhere the mythical heroes had carried out any great task, some natural feature such as a mountain range, a hill, or a river, arose to mark the place. So, this is why every aboriginal claims direct descent from one or another of these mythical beings of the “Dream Time”
  94. carry out (v): do something in real ⇒ “And when the “Dream Time” mysteriously came 10 an end, everywhere the mythical heroes had carried out any great task, some natural feature such as a mountain range, a hill, or a river, arose to mark the place. So, this is why every aboriginal claims direct descent from one or another of these mythical beings of the “Dream Time”
  95. mark (v): to write or draw a symbol, line, etc. on something in order to give information about it ⇒ “And when the “Dream Time” mysteriously came 10 an end, everywhere the mythical heroes had carried out any great task, some natural feature such as a mountain range, a hill, or a river, arose to mark the place. So, this is why every aboriginal claims direct descent from one or another of these mythical beings of the “Dream Time”
  96. claim (v): to say that something is true although it has not been proved and other people may not believe it ⇒ “And when the “Dream Time” mysteriously came 10 an end, everywhere the mythical heroes had carried out any great task, some natural feature such as a mountain range, a hill, or a river, arose to mark the place. So, this is why every aboriginal claims direct descent from one or another of these mythical beings of the “Dream Time”
  97. descent (n): an action of coming or going down ⇒ “And when the “Dream Time” mysteriously came 10 an end, everywhere the mythical heroes had carried out any great task, some natural feature such as a mountain range, a hill, or a river, arose to mark the place. So, this is why every aboriginal claims direct descent from one or another of these mythical beings of the “Dream Time”

Exercises

Fill in each blank with the appropriate word, making changes where necessary:

unique, significant, aboriginal, predominance, shelter, inhabit, exhaust, substantial, annoying, available, marine, reliable, edible, nutritious, ample, considerable, abundance

1. Faces, like fingerprints, are ……………………

2. The Maori people have a great …………………… civilization.

3. London and Sydney are cities ………………… of size.

4. Fish ………………… the sea.

5. The work has …………………….. her mind.

6. We now have total ……………………… in the European market.

7. The basic necessities of life are food, clothing and ………………..

8. The house is ………………… enough to last a hundred years.

9. The …………………. thing about it is that none of us understand; how to use the instrument.

10. Whales and seals are …………………… mammals.

11. We took the first ………………….. plane.

12. Oranges and bread are ………………….

13. The city’s many cultural and sports facilities offer ………………… recreation.

14. She may forget to come—she’s not very …………………..

15. These berries are ……………………. but those are poisonous.

16. A ……………….. number of people object to the government’s attitude to immigration.

17. The country has an ………………….. of skilled workers, but not enough jobs.

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