Expanding Your Vocabulary for IELTS Speaking & Writing

Oh, Temptation

If only fast food were truly addictive.

Last week, Caesar Barber of New York filed a class-action lawsuit against McDonald’s, Ken­tucky Fried Chicken, Burger King and Wendy’s, four of the worlds biggest fast-food chains. His claim was that they were responsible for his obesity and poor health. According to his lawyer, fast food had created a “craving” in his hapless client, who was blissfully unaware, until his doctor told hint, that consuming huge piles of burgers, fries and milkshakes was not actually good for his health.

Such an absurd lawsuit may have been inevitable as soon as the big tobacco settlements began burning a hole in trial lawyers’ pockets. But there is a catch: fast food is not addictive. It does not, as a matter of fact, create a real physical craving, because it contains no substance that could induce one.

The Economist suggests that this should now change. Consider the plight of the poor plain­tiffs. They, must prove that they were physiologically compelled to consume fast food, against the weight of scientific evidence and the dictates of common sense. Then there are the millions more who indulge in the stuff, but who would feel much better about themselves if they knew they had been suborned into doing so. Through the simple introduction of minute amounts of cocaine or nicotine into their wares, fast-food companies could improve the lot of such folk in future.

The benefits would not stop there. Nobody should be keener for fast food to be made addictive than governments. Once fast food became a genuine compulsion, there could be no economic or moral objection to regulating its consumption, as alcohol and tobacco are regulated, and to taxing it. The revenue from this “sin tax” could be used in a pretend effort to wean people off bad food. Many states spent their millions from tobacco settlements on balancing budgets, improving roads or paying teachers more. Supposedly, people in fiscally prudent, literate and well-paved places felt less urge to light up. Taxes on fast-food sales could be used in similar ways. Subsequently bureaucrats, their pensions happily financed by such taxes, could prepare carefully graded rationing schemes.

Making fast food addictive could help the defendants as well. They might follow the tobacco firms, who are living proof that even after murderous litigation you can be both universally reviled and still successful. When the big tobacco lawsuits finished, some thought the end of the industry was nigh. Far from it: they may have to obey fiddly rules about not marketing to small children in North America, but cigarette firms can still earn money in the rest of the world. Last year, theirs was the best-performing industry in the stock market. Fast-food companies could follow suit and reap both public-relations and financial victories.

Words and Expressions for IELTS Speaking & Writing

  1. temptation (n): the desire to have or do something that you know you should avoid ⇒ ” Oh, temptation
  2. if only: perhaps ⇒ “If only fast food were truly addictive.”
  3. fast food (n): inexpensive food prepared and served quickly ⇒ “If only fast food were truly addictive.”
  4. addictive (adj): causing or characterized by addition ⇒ “If only fast food were truly addictive.”
  5. file (v): record in a public office or in a court of law ⇒ “Last week, Caesar Barber of New York filed a class-action lawsuit against McDonald’s, Ken­tucky Fried Chicken, Burger King and Wendy’s, four of the worlds biggest fast-food chains.”
  6. class-action (n): a lawsuit brought by a representative member of a large group of people on behalf of all members of the group ⇒ “Last week, Caesar Barber of New York filed a class-action lawsuit against McDonald’s, Ken­tucky Fried Chicken, Burger King and Wendy’s, four of the worlds biggest fast-food chains.”
  7. lawsuit (n): a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy ⇒ “Last week, Caesar Barber of New York filed a class-action lawsuit against McDonald’s, Ken­tucky Fried Chicken, Burger King and Wendy’s, four of the worlds biggest fast-food chains.”
  8. claim (n): demand for something as rightful or due ⇒ “His claim was that they were responsible for his obesity and poor health.”
  9. obesity (n): more than average fatness ⇒ “His claim was that they were responsible for his obesity and poor health.”
  10. craving (n): an intense desire for some particular thing ⇒ “According to his lawyer, fast food had created a “craving” in his hapless client, who was blissfully unaware, until his doctor told hint, that consuming huge piles of burgers, fries and milkshakes was not actually good for his health.”
  11. hapless (adj): deserving or inciting pity ⇒ “According to his lawyer, fast food had created a “craving” in his hapless client, who was blissfully unaware, until his doctor told hint, that consuming huge piles of burgers, fries and milkshakes was not actually good for his health.”
  12. client (n): a person who seeks the advice of a lawyer ⇒ “According to his lawyer, fast food had created a “craving” in his hapless client, who was blissfully unaware, until his doctor told hint, that consuming huge piles of burgers, fries and milkshakes was not actually good for his health.”
  13. blissfully (adj): in a blissful manner ⇒ “According to his lawyer, fast food had created a “craving” in his hapless client, who was blissfully unaware, until his doctor told hint, that consuming huge piles of burgers, fries and milkshakes was not actually good for his health.”
  14. unaware (adj): not aware ⇒ “According to his lawyer, fast food had created a “craving” in his hapless client, who was blissfully unaware, until his doctor told hint, that consuming huge piles of burgers, fries and milkshakes was not actually good for his health.”
  15. consume (v): serve oneself to or consume regularly ⇒ “According to his lawyer, fast food had created a “craving” in his hapless client, who was blissfully unaware, until his doctor told hint, that consuming huge piles of burgers, fries and milkshakes was not actually good for his health.”
  16. burger (n): a sandwich consisting of a fried cake of minced beef served on a bun, often with other ingredients ⇒ “According to his lawyer, fast food had created a “craving” in his hapless client, who was blissfully unaware, until his doctor told hint, that consuming huge piles of burgers, fries and milkshakes was not actually good for his health.”
  17. fry (n): strips of potato fried in deep fat ⇒ “According to his lawyer, fast food had created a “craving” in his hapless client, who was blissfully unaware, until his doctor told hint, that consuming huge piles of burgers, fries and milkshakes was not actually good for his health.”
  18. milkshake (n): frothy drink of milk and flavoring and sometimes fruit or ice cream ⇒ “According to his lawyer, fast food had created a “craving” in his hapless client, who was blissfully unaware, until his doctor told hint, that consuming huge piles of burgers, fries and milkshakes was not actually good for his health.”
  19. absurd (adj): inconsistent with reason or logic or common sense ⇒ “Such an absurd lawsuit may have been inevitable as soon as the big tobacco settlements began burning a hole in trial lawyers’ pockets.”
  20. inevitable (adj): incapable of being avoided or prevented ⇒ “Such an absurd lawsuit may have been inevitable as soon as the big tobacco settlements began burning a hole in trial lawyers’ pockets.”
  21. settlement (n): the outcome of decision making ⇒ “Such an absurd lawsuit may have been inevitable as soon as the big tobacco settlements began burning a hole in trial lawyers’ pockets.”
  22. bum a hole in ones pocket: cost money ⇒ “Such an absurd lawsuit may have been inevitable as soon as the big tobacco settlements began burning a hole in trial lawyers’ pockets.”
  23. trial lawyer (n): a lawyer who specializes in defending clients before a court of law ⇒ “Such an absurd lawsuit may have been inevitable as soon as the big tobacco settlements began burning a hole in trial lawyers‘ pockets.”
  24. catch (n): a drawback or difficulty that is not readily evident ⇒ “But there is a catch: fast food is not addictive.”
  25. as a matter of fact: a problem ⇒ “It does not, as a matter of fact, create a real physical craving, because it contains no substance that could induce one.”
  26. contain (v): hold or have within ⇒ “It does not, as a matter of fact, create a real physical craving, because it contains no substance that could induce one.”
  27. substance (n): the real physical matter of which a person or something consists ⇒ “It does not, as a matter of fact, create a real physical craving, because it contains no substance that could induce one.”
  28. induce (v): cause to arise ⇒ “It does not, as a matter of fact, create a real physical craving, because it contains no substance that could induce one.”
  29. The Economist: an expert in science of economics ⇒ “The Economist suggests that this should now change.”
  30. plight (n): a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one ⇒ “Consider the plight of the poor plain­tiffs.”
  31. plaintiff (n): a person who brings an action in a court of law ⇒ “Consider the plight of the poor plain­tiffs.”
  32. compel (v): force somebody to do something ⇒ “They, must prove that they were physiologically compelled to consume fast food, against the weight of scientific evidence and the dictates of common sense.”
  33. against (prep): avoid of something ⇒ “They, must prove that they were physiologically compelled to consume fast food, against the weight of scientific evidence and the dictates of common sense.”
  34. weight (n): the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity ⇒ “They, must prove that they were physiologically compelled to consume fast food, against the weight of scientific evidence and the dictates of common sense.”
  35. dictate (n): an authoritative rule ⇒ “They, must prove that they were physiologically compelled to consume fast food, against the weight of scientific evidence and the dictates of common sense.”
  36. common sense (n): sound practical judgment ⇒ “They, must prove that they were physiologically compelled to consume fast food, against the weight of scientific evidence and the dictates of common sense.”
  37. indulge in (v): give satisfaction to ⇒ “Then there are the millions more who indulge in the stuff, but who would feel much better about themselves if they knew they had been suborned into doing so.”
  38. stuff (n): miscellaneous unspecified objects ⇒ “Then there are the millions more who indulge in the stuff, but who would feel much better about themselves if they knew they had been suborned into doing so.”
  39. suborn (v): induce to commit perjury or give false testimony ⇒ “Then there are the millions more who indulge in the stuff, but who would feel much better about themselves if they knew they had been suborned into doing so.”
  40. minute (adj): infinitely or immeasurably small ⇒ “Through the simple introduction of minute amounts of cocaine or nicotine into their wares, fast-food companies could improve the lot of such folk in future.”
  41. cocaine (n): a narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves; used as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure; can become powerfully addictive ⇒ “Through the simple introduction of minute amounts of cocaine or nicotine into their wares, fast-food companies could improve the lot of such folk in future.”
  42. lot (n): a large number or amount or extent ⇒ “Through the simple introduction of minute amounts of cocaine or nicotine into their wares, fast-food companies could improve the lot of such folk in future.”
  43. benefit (n): a performance to raise money for a charitable cause ⇒ “The benefits would not stop there.”
  44. keen (adj): very good ⇒ “Nobody should be keener for fast food to be made addictive than governments.”
  45. genuine (adj): not pretended ⇒ “Once fast food became a genuine compulsion, there could be no economic or moral objection to regulating its consumption, as alcohol and tobacco are regulated, and to taxing it.”
  46. compulsion (n): an urge to do or say something that might be better left undone or unsaid ⇒ “Once fast food became a genuine compulsion, there could be no economic or moral objection to regulating its consumption, as alcohol and tobacco are regulated, and to taxing it.”
  47. objection (n): the act of expressing earnest opposition or protest ⇒ “Once fast food became a genuine compulsion, there could be no economic or moral objection to regulating its consumption, as alcohol and tobacco are regulated, and to taxing it.”
  48. regulate (v): fix or adjust the time, amount, degree or rate of ⇒ “Once fast food became a genuine compulsion, there could be no economic or moral objection to regulating its consumption, as alcohol and tobacco are regulated, and to taxing it.”
  49. consumption (n): the process of taking food into the body through the mouth ⇒ “Once fast food became a genuine compulsion, there could be no economic or moral objection to regulating its consumption, as alcohol and tobacco are regulated, and to taxing it.”
  50. tax (v): change against a citizen’s person or property or activity for the support of government ⇒ “Once fast food became a genuine compulsion, there could be no economic or moral objection to regulating its consumption, as alcohol and tobacco are regulated, and to taxing it.”
  51. revenue (n): the entire amount of income before any deductions are made ⇒ “The revenue from this “sin tax” could be used in a pretend effort to wean people off bad food.”
  52. sin tax (n): a normal tax ⇒ “The revenue from this “sin tax” could be used in a pretend effort to wean people off bad food.”
  53. pretend (adj): imagined as in a play ⇒ “The revenue from this “sin tax” could be used in a pretend effort to wean people off bad food.”
  54. off (adj): not in operation or operational ⇒ “The revenue from this “sin tax” could be used in a pretend effort to wean people off bad food.”
  55. balance (v): bring into balance ⇒ “Many states spent their millions from tobacco settlements on balancing budgets, improving roads or paying teachers more.”
  56. budget (n): a sum of money allocated for a particular purpose ⇒ “Many states spent their millions from tobacco settlements on balancing budgets, improving roads or paying teachers more.”
  57. supposedly (adv): believed or reputed to be the case ⇒ “Supposedly, people in fiscally prudent, literate and well-paved places felt less urge to light up.”
  58. fiscally (adv): in financial matters ⇒ “Supposedly, people in fiscally prudent, literate and well-paved places felt less urge to light up.”
  59. prudent (adj): careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment ⇒ “Supposedly, people in fiscally prudent, literate and well-paved places felt less urge to light up. “
  60. literate (adj): able to read and write ⇒ “Supposedly, people in fiscally prudent, literate and well-paved places felt less urge to light up.”
  61. urge (n): a strong restless desire ⇒ “Supposedly, people in fiscally prudent, literate and well-paved places felt less urge to light up.”
  62. light up (v): make lighter or brighter ⇒ “Supposedly, people in fiscally prudent, literate and well-paved places felt less urge to light up.”
  63. subsequently (adv): happening at a time subsequent to a reference time ⇒ “Subsequently bureaucrats, their pensions happily financed by such taxes, could prepare carefully graded rationing schemes.”
  64. bureaucrat (n): an official of a bureaucracy ⇒ “Subsequently bureaucrats, their pensions happily financed by such taxes, could prepare carefully graded rationing schemes.”
  65. pension (n): a regular payment to a person that is intended to allow them to subsist without working ⇒ “Subsequently bureaucrats, their pensions happily financed by such taxes, could prepare carefully graded rationing schemes.”
  66. finance (v): obtain or provide money for ⇒ “Subsequently bureaucrats, their pensions happily financed by such taxes, could prepare carefully graded rationing schemes.”
  67. grade (v): a relative position or degree of value in a graded group ⇒ “Subsequently bureaucrats, their pensions happily financed by such taxes, could prepare carefully graded rationing schemes.”
  68. ration (v): distribute in rations, as in the army ⇒ “Subsequently bureaucrats, their pensions happily financed by such taxes, could prepare carefully graded rationing schemes.”
  69. scheme (n): an elaborate and systematic plan of action ⇒ “Subsequently bureaucrats, their pensions happily financed by such taxes, could prepare carefully graded rationing schemes.”
  70. defendant (n): a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law ⇒ “Making fast food addictive could help the defendants as well.”
  71. follow (v): to travel behind ⇒ “They might follow the tobacco firms, who are living proof that even after murderous litigation you can be both universally reviled and still successful.”
  72. living proof (n): an evidence of human being ⇒ “They might follow the tobacco firms, who are living proof that even after murderous litigation you can be both universally reviled and still successful.”
  73. murderous (adj): characteristic of or capable of or having a tendency toward killing another human being ⇒ “They might follow the tobacco firms, who are living proof that even after murderous litigation you can be both universally reviled and still successful.”
  74. litigation (n): a legal proceeding in a court ⇒ “They might follow the tobacco firms, who are living proof that even after murderous litigation you can be both universally reviled and still successful.”
  75. universally (adv): everywhere ⇒ “They might follow the tobacco firms, who are living proof that even after murderous litigation you can be both universally reviled and still successful.”
  76. revile (v): spread negative information about ⇒ “They might follow the tobacco firms, who are living proof that even after murderous litigation you can be both universally reviled and still successful.”
  77. far from (v): a distance from somewhere to somewhere ⇒ “Far from it: they may have to obey fiddly rules about not marketing to small children in North America, but cigarette firms can still earn money in the rest of the world.”
  78. obey (v): be obedient to ⇒ “Far from it: they may have to obey fiddly rules about not marketing to small children in North America, but cigarette firms can still earn money in the rest of the world.”
  79. fiddly (adj): small and of little importance ⇒ “Far from it: they may have to obey fiddly rules about not marketing to small children in North America, but cigarette firms can still earn money in the rest of the world.”
  80. market (v): the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold ⇒ “Far from it: they may have to obey fiddly rules about not marketing to small children in North America, but cigarette firms can still earn money in the rest of the world.”
  81. firm (n): the members of a business organization that owns or operates one or more establishments ⇒ “Far from it: they may have to obey fiddly rules about not marketing to small children in North America, but cigarette firms can still earn money in the rest of the world.”
  82. stock market (n): an exchange where security trading is conducted by professional stockbrokers ⇒ “Last year, theirs was the best-performing industry in the stock market.”
  83. follow suit (n): do what someone else is doing ⇒ “Fast-food companies could follow suit and reap both public-relations and financial victories.”
  84. reap (v): gather, as of natural products ⇒ “Fast-food companies could follow suit and reap both public-relations and financial victories.”
  85. financial (adj): involving financial matters ⇒ “Fast-food companies could follow suit and reap both public-relations and financial victories.”

Exercise

Fill in each blank with the appropriate word, making changes where necessary:

file, temptation, settlement, inevitable, induce, substance, plight, indulge, compel, minute

  1. I tried to resist the ……………. to laugh.
  2. They ………………. an application to have their ease heard early.
  3. A confrontation was ……………… because they disliked each other so much.
  4. The whole country is hoping for the ……………… of this strike.
  5. Heroin is an illegal ……………….
  6. Nothing could ……………… her to be disloyal to him.
  7. We are all moved by the ………………… of these poor homeless children.
  8. Employees are …………….. to join the company’s pension plan after a year’s service.
  9. I occasionally ………………….. in a big fat cigar.
  10. His writing is ………………..

Expanding Your Vocabulary for IELTS Speaking & Writing
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