Confusion of parts of speech
555. As and Like
Don’t say: You don’t look as your mother.
√ Say: You don’t look like your mother.
As is a conjunction, and is usually followed by a noun or pronoun in the nominative case.
Like isn’t a conjunction, but an adjective which behaves like a preposition in being followed by a noun or pronoun in the objective case.
556. So and Such
Don’t say: It’s such small that you can’t see it.
√ Say: It’s so small that you can’t see it.
Don’t say: I’ve never seen a so large animal before.
√ Say: I’ve never seen such a large animal before.
So is an adverb and must qualify an adjective on another adverb.
Such is an adjective and must qualify a noun.
557. No and Not
Don’t say: I’ve not made any mistakes in dictation.
√ Say: I’ve made no mistakes in dictation.
Don’t say: I have made no any mistakes in dictation.
√ Say: I haven’t (= have not) made any mistakes in dictation.
We use no meaning not any, as an adjective to qualify the noun if the noun it already qualified by an adjective like any, much, enough, we must use the adverb not
Note: We only use no as an adverb before a comparative –> I have no more to say.
558. Fool and Foolish
Don’t say: Anne said to me, ‘You’re fool.’
√ Say: Anne said to me, ‘You’re a fool.’
Don’t say: Anne said to me, ‘You’re a foolish.
✓ Say: Anne said to me, ‘You’re foolish.
Fool is a noun, and requires the article when we use it with the verb to be.
Foolish is an adjective, and can’t be used with the article after the verb to be.
Note: A fool or a foolish person doesn’t mean an insane person, but one who acts thoughtlessly. We tend to use silly or stupid instead or foolish in modern usage
559. Misuse of due to as a preposition
Don’t say: William came late due to an accident..
✓ Say: William came late because of an accident.
Don’t use due to as a preposition meaning because of
Due as an adjective here, is used correctly only when it qualifies some noun –> His delay was due to an accident.
560. Misuse of rest as an adjective
Don’t say: I spent the rest day at home.
✓ Say: I spent the rest of the day at home.
Here, rest is a noun, and we can’t use it as an adjective in the meaning of what’s left
561. Misuse of miser as an adjective
Don’t say: Jill loved money; she was miser.
✓ Say: Jill loved money; she was a miser.
Miser is a noun, and we can’t use it as an adjective. The adjective is a miserly –> She was miserly.
562. Misuse of opened as an adjective
Don’t say: I found all the windows opened.
✓ Say: I found all the windows open.
The adjective is open. The past participle is opened –> Somebody has opened all the windows.
563. Misuse of friendly as an adverb
Don’t say: Andrew behaves friendly.
✓ Say: Andrew behaves in a friendly way.
The adverbial form is in a friendly way
Friendly is an adjective a friendly game, to have friendly relations with one’s neighbors, etc
564. Misuse of truth as an adjective
Don’t say: Is it truth that Diana’s very ill?
✓ Say: Is it true that Diana’s very ill?
Truth isn’t an adjective but a noun. The adjective is true, and we use it with no article between it and the verb to be
565. Misuse of plenty as an adjective
Don’t say: Mike had plenty work to do.
✓ Say: Mike had plenty of work to do.
Plenty isn’t an adjective, but a noun meaning a large number or amount. The adjective is plentiful –> Oranges are cheap now because they are plentiful.
566. Misuse of coward as an adjective
Don’t say: She said, ‘You are a coward boy.’
✓ Say: She said, ‘You are a coward.’
Coward (= one without courage) is the noun. The adjective is cowardly
567. Misuse of others as an adjective
Don’t say: The others boys aren’t here.
✓ Say: The other boys aren’t here.
Others isn’t an adjective but a pronoun. The adjective is other (without the s). We can say “The others aren’t here.” omitting the noun boys.
568. Misuse of died for dead
Don’t say: I think his grandfather is died.
✓ Say: I think his grandfather is dead.
Died is the past tense of die. The adjective is dead
569. Misuse of shoot for shot
Don’t say: I had a good shoot at the goal.
✓ Say: I had a good shot at the goal.
Shoot (in football) is the verb. The noun is shot
570. Misuse of it’s for its
Don’t write: The bird was feeding it’s young.
✓ Write: The bird was feeding its young.
The possessive adjective its is correctly written without the apostrophe. So also hers, ours, yours, theirs take no apostrophe.
571. Misuse of hot as a noun
Don’t say. There’s much hot this summer.
✓ Say: It’s very hot this summer.
Hot is an adjective only, and we can’t use it as a noun. The noun is heat.
572. Misuse of pain as a verb
Don’t say: I pain my leg or My leg is paining.
✓ Say: There’s (or I’ve got) a pain in my leg.
We generally use pain as a noun, and precede it by have or feel
573. Misuse of worth as a verb
Don’t say: My bicycle worths £150.
✓ Say: My bicycle is worth £150.
Worth isn’t a verb, but an adjective.
574. Misuse of able as a verb
Don’t say: The poor man doesn’t able to pay.
✓ Say: The poor man isn’t able to pay.
Able is an adjective, and we can’t use it as a verb
575. Misuse of afraid as a verb
Don’t say: John doesn’t afraid of anybody.
✓ Say: John’s not afraid of anybody.
Afraid isn’t a verb but an adjective, and we generally use it with the verb to be
576. Misuse of weight as a verb
Don’t say: Have you weighted the letter?
✓ Say: Have you weighed the letter?
Weight is a noun and we can’t use it as a verb. The verb is weigh (without the t).
577. Misuse of good for well
Don’t say: His goalkeeper plays very good.
✓ Say: His goalkeeper plays very well.
Good is an adjective only, and we can’t use it as an adverb
578. Misuse of adjective for adverb
Don’t say: The little girl sang beautiful.
✓ Say: The little girl sang beautifully.
We use an adverb, and not an adjective to qualify a verb.
Note: After verbs such as took, feel, sound, taste, smell use an adjective instead of an adverb –> Sugar testes sweet (not sweetly)
579. Misuse of after for afterwards, etc.
Don’t say: After we went home for dinner.
✓ Say: Aiterwards we went home for dinner.
After is a preposition and we must use it with an object. Afterwards, then, after that are adverbs of time and we can use them alone.
580. And the two, etc., used for both, etc.
Don’t say: I’ve seen and the two of them.
✓ Say: I’ve seen both of them.
Never say and the two instead of both. Also avoid and the three, four, etc –> all three, four, etc.
531. Misuse of and for also or too
Don’t say: Let me do and the next exercise.
✓ Say: Let’s also do the next exercise.
Or: Let me do the next exercise too.
And is a conjunction, and can only join similar forms of speech –> He came and sat down
We can’t use it instead of the adverbs also and too
582. Misuse of and for even
Don’t say: She doesn’t trust and her friends.
✓ Say: She doesn’t trust even her friends.
And is a conjunction only, and we can’t use it instead of the adverb even
583. Misuse of loose for lose
Don’t say: Be careful not to loose your money.
✓ Say: Be careful not to lose your money.
Loss (with one o) is the common verb meaning not to be able to find
Loose (with double o) is an adjective meaning unfastened, free –> The horse was loose in the field.
584. Misuse of past for passed
Don’t say: I past by your house yesterday.
✓ Say: I passed by your house yesterday.
Past isn’t a verb. The past tense and past participle of the verb to pass is passed.
Note: We can use past as a noun. Don’t think of the past; an adjective –> The past week was warm; a preposition –> We walked past the church; an adverb –> The tram went past.